> Built-in Assembler Expression Symbols


 Built-in Assembler Expression Symbols

The built-in assembler provides access to almost all Pascal symbols in assembler expressions, including labels, constants, types, variables, procedures, and functions.

The built-in assembler also provides several predefined type symbols.

   Symbol     Value                Class     Type
   Label      Address of label     Memory    Short
   Constant   Value of constant    Immediate 0
   Type       0                    Memory    Size of type
   Field      Offset of field      Memory    Size of type
   Variable   Address of variable  Memory    Size of type
   Procedure  Address of procedure Memory    Near or Far
   Function   Address of function  Memory    Near or Far
   Unit       0                    Immediate 0
   @Code      Code segment address Memory    0FFF0H
   @Data      Data segment address Memory    0FFF0H
   @Result    Result var offset    Memory    Size of type

Symbols that can not be used in Built-in Assembler Expressions

The following symbols can not be used in built-in assembler expressions:

  - Standard procedures and functions (for  example, WriteLn, Chr)
  - The special arrays Mem, MemW, MemL, Port and PortW
  - String, floating-point, and set constants
  - Procedures and functions declared with the inline directive
  - Labels that are not declared in the current block
  - The @Result symbol outside a function.

Local Variables

Local variables (variables declared in procedures and functions) are always allocated on the stack and accessed relative to SS:BP.

The value of a local-variable symbol is its signed offset from SS:BP.

The built-in assembler automatically adds [BP] in references to local variables.

Var Parameter

The built-in assembler always treats a var parameter as a 32-bit pointer, and the size of a var parameter is always 4 (the size of a 32-bit pointer).

To access the contents of a var parameter, you must first load the 32-bit pointer and then access the location it points to.


A scope is provided by type, field, and variable symbols of a record or object type.

In addition, a unit identifier opens the scope of a particular unit, just like a fully-qualified identifier in Pascal.


Some symbols, such as record types and variables, have a scope that can be accessed using the structure member selector (.) operator.

Type Identifier

You can use a type identifier to construct variables as you write your program.

Each of these instructions generates the same machine code, which loads the contents of ES:[DI+4] into AX:

   MOV     AX,(Rect PTR ES:[DI]).B.X
   MOV     AX,Rect(ES:[DI]).B.X
   MOV     AX,ES:Rect[DI].B.X
   MOV     AX,Rect[ES:DI].B.X
   MOV     AX,ES:[DI].Rect.B.X

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Тэги: Symbols Expressions

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